Lucas Paqueta had just put Seleção ahead some 16 seconds after coming on as a second-half sub before the host nation were reduced to 10 men.
The City striker tried to control a high ball in midfield but his foot was high as Chile’s Eugenio Mena came into challenge from his blind side.
Jesus, who was sent off in the 2019 Copa America final for two bookable offences, was distraught after the incident which though accidental, was an inevitable red card.
Team-mate Neymar later revealed that Jesus hadn’t seen Mena as he attempted to control the ball.
Chile, chasing what would have been a shock victory, produced a late onslaught that saw Ederson make at least two fine saves in the closing stages.
Tite’s men held out and will now face Peru in the semi-final, with a Brazil v Argentina final looking a strong possibility on 11 July.
Jesus will now be suspended for the game against Peru.