The 20-year-old kept 10 clean sheets in 16 league appearances to take the award which has been introduced by Barclays this season.
Roebuck has so far clocked up 67 appearances for City and won five England caps.
She said: “Thank you to everyone that voted for me to win the Barclays Football Golden Glove award for the 2019/20 FA WSL season.
“On a personal level, it’s something I’m really, really proud of, but without my team-mates, the defenders in front of me and the coaching staff, it’s an award that wouldn’t have been possible for me to win.
“So, thanks again and a big shout out to our fans who come and support us week in, week out – you are the best and without you, it wouldn’t be the same.”
Congratulations to Ellie from everyone at Manchester City.