The City star produced an influential display from midfield, as the Blue and Yellow battled back from a goal down to claim victory, thanks to two goals in two second half minutes from Johanna Rytting Kaneryd and Lina Hurtig, plus a late Stina Blackstenius strike.
It was a record-breaking day for the Olympic silver medallists, who played in front of a record crowd of 33,218 at the Friends Arena.
Occupying a central role, Angeldahl demonstrated both sides of her game, breaking up attacks and initiating some of the hosts' best attacking moves before being replaced by Caroline Seger.
She tried her luck with an early effort but watched her half-volley skew over the crossbar from the edge of the area, after Kerolin and former Blue Kosovare Asllani had seen shots saved for both sides.
Tamires almost opened the scoring with a cross-shot, which looped over Hedvig Lindahl but bounced back off the post.
Adriana then stung the palms of Lindahl with a long-range attempt in the last major action of the half with Kerolin unable to convert the rebound.
Sweden started the second half with purpose - Angeldahl drawing a save from Lorena with a deflected low effort - but it was Brazil who took the lead six minutes after the break, courtesy of Debinha, who latched onto Fernanda Palermo's clipped pass and slotted inside Lindahl's near post.
Mounting a brilliant response, the home side pressed for a leveller and turned the game on its head inside two minutes.
After Fridolina Rolfo had drawn a smart stop from Lorena, Sweden found an equaliser five minutes after the hour with a goal of individual brilliance, as Kaneryd brought the ball down, drove at the Brazil defence and drilled beyond Lorena.
Inspired, the hosts took the lead with their next attack, as Hurtig powered home Jonna Andersson's pinpoint delivery from the left flank.
Olivia Schough then fired over and almost turned provider for Hurtig, whose second headed effort was saved, while Duda spurned the chance to level at the other end, blazing over the bar.
Blackstenius almost made it three, smashing the wrong side of the post, but made no mistake with her second attempt, collecting Rebecka Blomqvist's inch-perfect pass and chipping just under the crossbar to seal the win.
Angeldahl and co. kick-off their Euros campaign against reigning Champions the Netherlands on Saturday 9 July at Bramall Lane, Sheffield (20:00) before facing Switzerland (Wednesday 13 July, 17:00 also at Bramall Lane) and Portugal (Sunday 17 July, 17:00 at Leigh Sports Village) in Group C.
33 218 - nytt publikrekord! 👏🇸🇪— Svensk Fotboll (@svenskfotboll) June 28, 2022
🇸🇪 2-1 🇧🇷 pic.twitter.com/kOnNvPoCwi