The Manchester City striker was introduced at half-time, with team-mate Fernandinho following 12 minutes later, but was denied a match-winner after a VAR decision.
Replacing Richarlison, Jesus added fresh impetus to a Brazilian attack which, despite dominating possession, spurned several chances in the first half.
A foul in the build-up to a Roberto Firmino goal had already prevented the hosts from opening their account and it was the Liverpool forward who strayed into an offside position which led to Jesus’ goal being chalked off.
Brazil's No.9 saw his initial 18-yard effort blocked – the rebound rolling into the path of the offside Firmino – who returned it for Jesus to slam home in vain from six-yards.
Earlier the 22-year-old curled wide from the edge of the area as he looked to make an immediate impact from the bench.
Sergio Aguero and Nicolas Otamendi are the next City representatives in action in the Copa America, with Argentina set to play Paraguay at 1.30am (BST) on Thursday.