The forward was introduced in the 78th minute, replacing Leeds’ Raphinha with the scoreline in Seoul at 3-1.
But further strikes from fellow substitute Phillipe Coutinho and Jesus helped guide Tite’s side to a convincing victory.
Everton forward Richarlison had opened the scoring inside seven minutes, but the hosts drew level after the half hour through Hwang Ui-Jo.
Brazilian captain Neymar restored the visitors’ lead before the break from the spot, and he converted another penalty after the restart to double their advantage.
Coutinho added the fourth, before a fine individual goal from Jesus capped off an emphatic win for the Selecao.
Picking up play on the right flank, City’s number nine weaved his way through the challenges en route to the South Korea box before finding the far corner of the net with a clinical left-footed finish.
It was Jesus’ 19th international goal and he will hope to add to that tally when Brazil face Japan on Monday 6 June.