Sunday’s superb 5-0 victory with Norwich at the Etihad Stadium in the final game of the campaign ensured the shot-stopper kept the highest number of clean sheets throughout.
The Brazilian earned 16 shut-outs – one more than Burnley and England goalkeeper Nick Pope – across 35 league appearances of 38.
Ederson and Pope had stood to share the award but Burnley conceded at home to Brighton and Hove Albion on the final day.
The City shot-stopper himself produced a solid display, preserving his clean sheet with a string of impressive saves against the Canaries.
The triumph marks the first time Ederson has scooped the Golden Glove award, having narrowly missed out last term.
Joe Hart claimed the prize in City colours on four occasions between 2010 and 2015.
Meanwhile, Kevin De Bruyne clinched the Playmaker of the Season prize for the second time.
The Belgian bagged his 20th assist of the Premier League season by setting up Raheem Sterling's strike, equalling Thierry Henry's league record in the process.
He retained the award, having won it in its inaugural year - the 2017/18 Centurions campaign.