Doyle scored England’s equaliser and Delap came on in extra time to set-up the Young Lions’ third to secure victory in Slovakia.
England fell behind five minutes before the end of the first-half when Oscar Gloch struck home from 15 yards out to put the Israelis ahead.
In an open, entertaining game, Israel just about deserved to go to the break with a narrow lead, but England were level six minutes after the restart.
The Young Lions had scored twice from set-pieces in the semi-final against Italy, repeated the feat when a corner found Jarrell Quansah who headed the ball back across the six-yard box for Doyle to tap home.
The teams could not be separated in normal time and were forced to go to an additional 30 minutes.
But on 107 minutes, England went ahead for the first time when Carney Chukwuemeka bundled home Harvey Vale’s excellent cross to make it 2-1.
Doyle also headed a shot off the line from Gloch as Israel threatened an equaliser.
Delap, who had patiently waited for his opportunity to shine, was introduced at the end of the first half of extra time for Tottenham’s Dane Scarlett.
And it was Delap’s powerful run and strength that set up the decisive third on 116 minutes.
Collecting a long ball down the left on the halfway line, Delap held off his marker and was first up after the pair tumbled to the ground just outside the box.
The City striker held off challenges as he drove into the box, hit a low drive that the keeper could only parry into the path of Aaron Ramsey who tapped home to make it 3-1.
It’s only the second time England have been crowned Under-19 champions of Europe – congratulations to Liam and Callum from everyone at Manchester City.